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NEET 2021 syllabus by MCI covers concepts from class 11 and 12. Specifically, NEET syllabus consists of three subjects i.e. Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (Zoology and Botany). Consequently, the aspirants are advised to go through the NEET 2021 Zoology syllabus and NEET 2021 Botany syllabus. There have been rumours of the NEET 2021 syllabus reduction but as no official notification has been released by the concerned authorities so students should study according to the earlier syllabus.
- NEET syllabus 2021 will be conducted in offline mode where candidates will have to follow the NEET 2021 exam pattern as prescribed by the NTA.
- A total of 180 multiple choice questions are asked in the NEET 2021 question paper. Out of which, 90 questions are from Biology section, 45 questions from Physics, and 45 questions from Chemistry section.
- The total time allotted for attempting the NEET 2021 question paper will be 3 hours.
To get a high score and to secure the name in the top position of the merit list, the aspirants are advised to keep checking the essential topics during their NEET 2021 preparation accordingly. This article highlights the topic-wise and chapter-wise weightage apart from NEET Syllabus 2021.
NEET Syllabus 2021
The NEET 2021 Syllabus by MCI is made as per the curriculum of NCERT books. Specifically, class XI and XII NCERT books play a vital role to clear major concepts and topics. Now, the mentioned table shows the detailed marking scheme for every subject.
|Examination||National Eligibility Entrance Test (NEET)|
|NEET Syllabus Issuing Authority||National Testing Agency|
|Biology||Botany Section: 45 questions and Zoology Section: 45 questions|
NEET 2021 Section Wise Syllabus
The medical exam is conducted by NTA to measure the excellence of the candidates in Physics, Chemistry and Biology. For instance, go through the Subject Wise Preparation Tips of Physics
Unit 7: Thermodynamics
- First law of thermodynamics, Definition of temperature that is the concept of zeroth law of thermodynamics, thermal equilibrium, Isothermal and adiabatic processes, Heat, work and internal energy.
- Second law of the thermodynamics that is Reversible and irreversible processes.
- Heat engines and refrigerators.
Unit 8: Gravitation
- Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite, Gravitational potential energy, Geostationary satellites, gravitational potential.
- The universal law of gravitation, Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
Unit 9: Oscillations and Waves
- Wave motion, Displacement relation for a progressive wave, fundamental mode and harmonics, Longitudinal and transverse waves, reflection of waves, Doppler Effect, Principle of superposition of waves, and reflection of waves, speed of wave motion, Beats.
- Periodic functions, Periodic motion-period, Simple harmonic motion (SHM) and its equation, its phase, frequency, energy in SHM –Kinetic and potential energies, forced and damped oscillations ( qualitative ideas only), Periodic functions, simple pendulum- derivation of expression for its time period,free, resonance.
UNIT 10: Behavior of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory
- Kinetic energy and temperature, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases, Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure, application to specific heat capacities of gases, degree of freedom, concept of gases,theory on mean free path.
- Equation of state of a perfect gas.
- Work done on compressing a gas.
Detailed NEET Physics Syllabus of Class XII
Unit 1: Current Electricity
- Kirchhoff’s laws and its simple applications, metre bridge and Wheatstone bridge.
- Carbon resistors, temperature dependence of resistance, series and parallel combinations of resistors, color code for carbon resistors.
- Measurement of internal resistance of a cell, Potentiometer theory and its application for estimating the probable distinction. In addition, to compare the emf of two cells.
- Combination of cells, parallely and also in series, Internal resistance of cell, potential difference of the emf of a cell.
- Ohm’s law, drift velocity and mobility, V-I characteristics (both linear and nonlinear), electrical resistivity, Electric current, electrical conductivity, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, electrical power and energy.
Unit 2: Electrostatistics
- Statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications for finding the field due to infinitely long straight wire, Electrical flux, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet, uniformly charged thin spherical shell(field inside and outside)
- Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor (with and without dielectric medium between the plates), Conductors and insulators, capacitors and capacitance. Combined capacitors both in case of series and parallel, Van de Graff generator, Dielectrics and electric polarization, bound charges and free charges inside a conductor, energy stored in a capacitor.
- Electric field, electric dipole, torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field, electric field due to a point charge and due to a dipole, electric field lines.
- Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, superposition principle, Electric charges and their conservation, forces between multiple charges, Constant charge distribution.
- Electric potential due to a point charge, Electric potential, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges, electric potential energy of electric dipoles in an electrostatic field, a dipole and system of charges: equipotential surfaces.
Unit 3: Alternating Currents and Electromagnetic Induction
- LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), power in AC circuits, Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage, LCR series circuit, wattles current, resonance, reactance and impedance.
- AC generator and transformer.
- Faraday’s law, induced emf and current, Self and mutual inductance, Eddy currents, Lenz’s law, Electromagnetic induction.
Unit 4: Magnetic Effects of Magnetism and Current
- Ampere’s law and its application for infinitely long straight wire, Cyclotron, Force on a moving charge in uniform electric and magnetic fields, toroidal and straight solenoids.
- Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole( that is bar magnet) along with the axis and perpendicular to axis, Earth’s magnetic element and magnetic field, Torque on a magnetic dipole that is bar magnetic (it is in a uniform magnetic field), Current loop as a magnetic dipole, magnetic dipole moment of current loop, Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines.
- Permanent magnets, Electromagnetic and the factors affect its strength.
- Biot –Savart law and its application for carrying current in a circular loop, Concept of magnetic field, and Oersted’s experiment.
- Ferro-magnetic, diamagnetic and paramagnetic substances. Read the examples.
- Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field, Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Moving coil galvanometer as conversion and current sensitivity to voltmeter and ammeter, Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors, definition of ampere.
Unit 5: Optics
- Reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset and scattering of light-blue colour of the sky
- Magnification, mirror, power of a lens and combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens.
- Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula.
- Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism, tital internal reflection and its applications optical fibres.
- Refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, lens-maker’s formula, thin lens formula.
- Astronomical and microscopes telescopes (reflecting and refracting); magnifying powers.
- Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes.
- Polarization, Brewster’s law, plane polarized light; Uses of Polaroids and plane polarized light.
- Using Huygens’ principle, proof of laws of reflection and refraction.
- Using lenses, correction of myopia and hypermetropia
- Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation.
- Wave optics: Huygens’ principle and Wavefront, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts.
- Width of central maximum, diffraction due to single slit
- Coherent sources and sustained interference of light
- Young’s double hole experiment
- Expression for fringe width
Unit 6: Electromagnetic Waves
- Electromagnetic spectrum (microwaves, radio waves, visible, infrared, ultraviolet, gamma rays, x-rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
- Need for displacement current
- Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves
- Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas)
Unit 7: Atoms And Nuclei
- Mass-energy relation, binding energy per nucleon, mass defect and its variation with mass number
- Nuclear fission and fusion
- Radioactivity – alpha, beta and gamma particles
- Rays and their properties decay law.
- Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isobars, isotopes, isotones.
- Bohr model, Alpha-particle scattering experiments, Rutherford’s model of atom, Energy levels, hydrogen spectrum
Unit 8: Dual Nature Of Matter And Radiation
- Davisson-Germer experiment (omit experimental details, only conclusion should be explained)
- Matter waves – Wave nature of particles
- De Broglie relation
- Hertz and Lenard’s observations, Photoelectric effect, Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light
Unit 9: Electronic Devices
- Junction transistor, characteristics of a transistor, transistor action, transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator
- Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR)
- Transistor as a switch
- Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators and semiconductor diode- I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier, I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell
- Zener diode
- Zener diode as a voltage regulator
NEET Syllabus 2021: Chemistry
The Chemistry syllabus of NEET is quite broad and there are a total of 30 chapters. Among those, 14 chapters are from class XI syllabus and 16 chapters are from Class XII syllabus. Candidates also check the name of the chapters from which Chemistry questions are asked mostly in NEET exam.
|Chapters from Class XI||Chapters from Class XII|
|Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry||Solid State|
|Structure of Atom||Solutions|
|Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties||Electrochemistry|
|Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure||Chemical Kinetics|
|States of Matter: Gases and Liquids||Surface Chemistry|
|Thermodynamics||General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements|
|Equilibrium||p- Block Elements|
|Redox Reactions||d and f Block Elements|
|s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)||Haloalkanes and Haloarenes|
|Some p-Block Elements||Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers|
|Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques||Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids|
|Hydrocarbons||Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen|
|–||Chemistry in Everyday Life|
Detailed NEET Chemistry Syllabus of Class XI
Unit 1: Structure of Atom
- Concept of shells and subshells
- Dual nature of matter and light
- De Broglie’s relationship
- Heisenberg uncertainty principle
- Concept of orbital, quantum numbers
- Shapes of s,p and d orbitals
- Aufbau principle
- Atomic number, isotopes and isobars
- Hund’s rule and Pauli exclusion principles, electronic configuration of atoms
- Stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
Unit 2: Basic Fundamental Concepts of Chemistry
- General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry
- Atomic and molecular masses
- Mole concept and molar mass; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula;
- Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules, Laws of chemical combination.
Unit 3: Molecular Structure and Chemical Bonding
- Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, resonance, geometry of molecules, valence bond theory.
- VSEPR theory
- Concept of hybridization that involves s, p and d orbitals
- Shapes of some simple molecules
- Molecular orbital theory: homonuclear diatomic molecules (only qualitative idea)
- Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters
- Hydrogen bond
Unit 4: Periodicity in Properties and Classification of Elements
- Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements- atomic radii, electronegativity, valence, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy.
Unit 5: Thermodynamics
- Introduction of entropy as state function
- Second law of thermodynamics
- Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process
- Criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity
- First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution, enthalpy of: bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation.
- Brief introduction on Third law of thermodynamics.
Unit 6: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
- Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea),
- Liquefaction of gases, deviation from ideal behavior, critical temperature
- Ideal gas equation, Avogadro number
- Liquid State- Surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations) vapour pressure, and viscosity.
- Role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behavior of gases
- Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions,
- Types of bonding, melting and boiling points
- Empirical derivation of gas equation
Unit 7: Redox Reactions
- Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction
- Redox reactions, oxidation number
- Balancing redox reactions in terms of gain and loss of electron
- Change in oxidation numbers
Unit 8: Equilibrium
- Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea)
- Buffer solutions
- Henderson equation, common ion effect (with illustrative examples), solubility product
- Factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chatelier’s principle
- Ionic equilibrium – ionization of acids and bases, weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of polybasic acids, degree of ionization, acid strength, concept of PH
- Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes
- Dynamic nature of equilibrium
- Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant
Unit 9: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
- Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds: chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
- Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca and potassium
- General introduction, occurrence, electronic configuration, anomalous properties of the first element of each group
- Group I and group 2 elements: Diagonal relationship, trends in Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), biological importance of sodium
Unit 10: Hydrogen
- Physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water
- Hydrogen peroxide – preparation, uses, reactions, and structure
- Occurrence, preparation, isotopes, properties and uses of hydrogen
- Hydrides-ionic, covalent and interstitial
Unit 11: Some Basic Principles and Techniques on Organic Chemistry
- Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: electromeric effect, inductive effect, hyperconjugation and resonance
- General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis
- Heterolytic fission and Homolytic of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations, carbanions;
- Electrophiles and nucleophiles
- Types of organic reactions
- Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds
Unit 12: Some p-Block Elements
- General Introduction to p-Block Elements
- Important compounds of silicon their uses: silicates and zeolites, silicon tetrachloride, silicones, their uses
- Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of the first element of the group; Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalis
- General 14 elements: General introduction, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behavior of the first element, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states. Carbon, allotropic forms: uses of some important compounds: oxides physical and chemical properties
Also check | NEET 2021 Preparation Tips for Chemistry
Unit 13: Environmental Chemistry
- Environmental pollution: Air, soil and water pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants
- Acid rain ozone and its reactions
- Effects of depletion of ozone layer
- Greenhouse effect
- Global warming – pollution due to industrial wastes
- Green chemistry as an alternative tool for decreasing pollution
- Strategy for control of environmental pollution
Unit 14: Hydrocarbons
- Alkynes: Nomenclature, chemical reactions, structure of triple bond (ethyne): acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, physical properties, methods of preparation, hydrogen halides and water.
- Alkanes: Nomenclature,conformations (ethane only), isomerism, physical properties, combustion and pyrolysis, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation
- Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance, aromaticity; halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution- Nitration sulphonation, directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
- Alkanes: Nomenclature, physical properties, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, methods of preparation: chemical reactions, addition of hydrogen, oxidation, ozonolysis, mechanism of electrophilic addition, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect)
Detailed NEET Chemistry Syllabus of Class XII
Unit 1: Solutions
- Raoult’s law, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point, and osmotic pressure
- Van Hoff factor, Determination of molecular masses with the help of colligative properties abnormal molecular mass.
- Types of solutions, colligative properties- relative lowering of vapour pressure, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids.
Unit 2: Solid State
- Calculation of density of unit cell, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, packing efficiency, voids, point defects, packing in solids, electrical and magnetic properties
- Band theory of metals, semiconductors and insulators
- Classification of solids based on different binding forces; amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea) conductors, molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids,
- Unit cell in two and three dimensional lattices
Unit 3: Chemical Kinetics
- Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), temperature, concentration, factors affecting rates of reaction; catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction
- Activation energy, Arrhenious equation
- Integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions);Rate law and specific rate constant, concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no mathematical treatment)
Unit 4: Electrochemistry
- Kohlrausch’s Law, , dry cell- electrolytic cells, electrolysis, Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), lead accumulator, Galvanic cells; EMF of a cell
- Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell,Standard electrode potential, fuel cells; corrosion
- Conductance in electrolytic solutions, Redox reactions, specific and molar conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration
Unit 5: Processes of Isolation of Elements and General Principles
- Principles and methods of extraction- oxidation, oxidation, concentration,reduction electrolytic method
- Occurrence, copper, principles of extraction of aluminium, zinc and iron
Unit 6: Surface chemistry
- Adsorption– Physisorption and chemisorption; catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids,enzyme catalysis
- Brownian movement, Tyndall effect, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions
- Colloidal state:colloids and suspensions; distinction between true solutions, lyophobic multimolecular,lyophilic and macromolecular colloids
Unit 7: p- Block Elements
- Group-15 elements: Trends in physical and chemical properties; General introduction,occurrence, electronic configuration, oxidation states, compounds of phosphorus: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3 , PCI5 ) and oxoacids (elementary idea only); oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorus- allotropic forms, preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid.
- Group-16 elements: Sulphur – allotropic forms; General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of sulphur: preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; ozone. sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of preparation, sulphur (structures only); dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; .
- Group-17 elements: Compounds of halogens: preparation,occurrence, electronic configuration, General introduction,oxidation states, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid,trends in physical and chemical properties; interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
- Group-18 elements: electronic configuration, General introduction, trends in physical and chemical properties, occurrence, uses.
Unit 8: Coordination Compounds
- Coordination compounds: Introduction, coordination number, ligands,magnetic properties, colour, and shapes
- Importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis as well as biological systems)
- Isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds,Werner’s theory VBT,CFT
Unit 9: d and f Block Elements
- Lanthanide- oxidation states, electronic configuration, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
- General introduction, characteristics of transition metals, electronic configuration, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, interstitial compounds, catalytic property, magnetic properties, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
- Actinoids: oxidation states,Electronic configuration, and comparison with lanthanide.
Unit 10: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
- Phenols: Nomenclature, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, methods of preparation, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
- Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol; Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only);.
- Ethers: Nomenclature, physical and chemical properties uses, methods of preparation, .
Unit 11: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
- Haloarenes: substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane,Nature of C-X bond, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT only).
- Haloalkanes: Optical rotation, Nomenclature, nature of C –X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions
Unit 12: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
- Cyanides and Isocyanides: mentioned at relevant places.
- Amines: classification, structure, Nomenclature, methods of preparation, uses, identification of primary secondary amine, physical and chemical properties, and tertiary amine
- Diazonium salts: Chemical reactions, Preparation, and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit 13: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
- Carboxylic Acids: acidic nature, Nomenclature, physical and chemical properties; methods of preparation, uses.
- Aldehydes and Ketones: uses and Nomenclature, Mechanism of nucleophilic addition, nature of carbonyl group, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties.
Unit 14: Polymers
- Classification: Natural and synthetic, copolymerization, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation).
- Some important polymers: bakelite; natural and synthetic like polyesters, rubber, Biodegradable polymers, non-biodegradable polymers.
Unit 15: Biomolecules
- Proteins:peptide bond, Elementary idea of – amino acids, proteins, polypeptides, primary structure, secondary structure, denaturation of proteins; tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), enzymes.
- Hormones: Elementary idea (excluding structure).
- Vitamins: Classification and function.
- Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
- Carbohydrates: monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), Classification (aldoses and ketoses), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance, D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose),.
Unit 16: Chemistry in Everyday Life
- Chemicals in food: artificial sweetening agents, preservatives, elementary idea of antioxidants.
- Cleansing agents: soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
- Chemicals in medicines: tranquilizers,analgesics, antifertility drugs, antiseptics, disinfectants, antibiotics, antimicrobials,antihistamines, antacids.
NEET Syllabus 2021: Biology
Biology is no less important. However, the NEET 2021 syllabus Biology is quite concise. Specifically, it consists of both Zoology and Botany and there are a total of 10 chapters. For instance, the Biology section contains a total of 5 chapters from class XI and 5 from class XII. Following are these chapters:
|Chapters from Class XI||Chapters from Class XII|
|Diversity in Living World||Reproduction|
|Structural Organization in Animals and Plants||Genetics and Evolution|
|Cell Structure and Function||Biology and Human Welfare|
|Plant Physiology||Biotechnology and Its Applications|
|Human physiology||Ecology and environment|
Detailed NEET 2021 Syllabus Biology of Class XI
Unit 1: Cell Structure and Function
- Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates; B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance
- Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cilia, flagella, Cytoskeleton, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus
- Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Plant cell and animal cell; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum
Unit 2: Diversity in Living World
- What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; Taxonomy & Systematics; Three domains of life; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria; Binomial nomenclature; Concept of species and taxonomic hierarchy
- Viruses and Viroids.
- Angiosperms- classification till class, characteristic features and examples). (Salient features with minimum two examples).
- Salient features and classification of animals – chordate up to classes level and non chordate up to phyla level
- Botanical gardens, Salient features and classification of plants into major groups- Gymnosperms, Algae, Pteridophytes, Bryophytes,
- Salient features and classification of Monera;
- Five kingdom classification; Lichens; Protista and Fungi into major groups
UNIT 3: Human Physiology
- Digestion and absorption;
- Alimentary canal and digestive glands;
- Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones;
- Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats;
- Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats;
- Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea
- Excretory Products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Human excretory, ureotelism, Ammonotelism, uricotelism
- Body fluids and circulation: Composition of the blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure, Human circulatory system-Structure of Human heart and blood vessels; Composition of lymph and its function; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation
- Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory system in humans; Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-transport of gases, regulation of respiration and exchange of gases, Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Occupational respiratory disorders, Asthma, Emphysema
- System – structure and function; Urine formation, Osmoregulation;
- Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin,
- Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus;
- Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders;
- Uraemia, Renal failure, renal calculi, Nephritis;
- Dialysis and artificial kidney
- Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Sense organs; Reflex action; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse
- Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- flagella, ciliary, muscular; skeletal system-Myasthenia and Disorders of muscular, Gravis, Muscular dystrophy, Tetany, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout; Joints; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions
- Pineal, Pancreas, Thyroid, Adrenal, Parathyroid, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders
- Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary
UNIT 4: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants
- Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (respiratory, nervous, circulatory, digestive, and Syllabus) reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)
- Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Stem, Root, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and racemose, fruit, flower and seed
UNIT 5: Ecology and environment
- Ecosystem: Ecological Services – Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release, Energy flow; Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy
- Organisms and environment: Population and ecological adaptations, Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Habitat and niche; Population attributes-growth, age distribution, and birth rate and death rate
- Environmental issues: Agrochemicals and their effects; Air pollution and its control; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warming; Solid waste management; Water pollution and its control; Ozone depletion; Deforestation;
- Any 3 case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.
- Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity, Biodiversity conservation, Importance of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Hotspots, endangered organisms, biosphere reserves, extinction, National parks and sanctuaries, Red Data Book,
UNIT 6: Plant Physiology
- Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition;
- Nitrogen metabolism-biological, Nitrogen cycle, nitrogen fixation
- Transport in plants: Movement of water, Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; gases and nutrients;
- Transpiration: Opening and closing of stomata
- Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients: Mass flow hypothesis, Transport of food, phloem transport; Diffusion of gases (brief mention)
- Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin, gibberellin, ethylene, cytokinin, ABA; Seed dormancy; Photoperiodism, Vernalisation
- Plant – water relations – Imbibition, osmosis, water potential, plasmolysis; Long-distance transport of water – Absorption, Symplas, apoplast, transpiration pull, guttation and root pressure
- Photosynthesis: Factors affecting photosynthesis, Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Cyclic and non-cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways;
- Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; macro and micronutrients and their role
- Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient; TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic)
- Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Conditions of growth; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate
Detailed Class XII Syllabus of NEET Exam
Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution
- Molecular basis of Inheritance: Genome and human genome project; Structure of DNA and RNA; genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation-Lac Operon; Transcription, DNA fingerprinting, Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; DNA packaging; Central dogma; DNA replication.
- Heredity and variation: Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Mendelian Inheritance; Colour blindness; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Chromosome theory of inheritance, Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee, Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia, Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
- Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Gene flow and genetic drift; Adaptive Radiation; Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Human evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection.
Unit 2: Reproduction
- Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Double fertilization; Pollination Types, Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation
- Reproductive health: Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness); Birth control- Need and Methods, Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD);Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP).
- Reproduction in organisms: Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants; Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction.
- Human Reproduction: Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Male and female reproductive systems; Lactation (Elementary idea) Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Menstrual cycle.
Unit 3: Biotechnology and Its Applications
- Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology), Modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.
- Human insulin and vaccine production, Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture, gene therapy; Genetically
Unit 4: Biology and Human Welfare
- Microbes in human welfare: sewage treatment, energy generation, Industrial production, and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
- Health and Disease; Typhoid, parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. HIV and AIDS; Pneumonia, common cold, Cancer, amoebiasis, ringworm); Pathogens; Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines;Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
- Improvement in food production; tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Plant breeding, Apiculture and Animal husbandry
Unit 5: Ecology and environment
- Ecosystem: Patterns, productivity and decomposition; Pyramids of number, components; biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, Energy flow; pollination, oxygen release.
- Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warming; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Deforestation; Ozone depletion; Any three case studies along with the success stories to address environmental issues.
- Organisms and environment: Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Habitat and niche; Population attributes-growth,population and ecological adaptations; birth rate and death rate, age distribution
- Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Patterns of Biodiversity; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity.
Topic wise weightage
The candidates should know about the section wise weightage in order to score high in NEET 2021 exam. Read the following content to identify the topic wise weightage.
NEET 2021 Physics Section Weightage
- It is assumed that Physics is more complicated compared to the other two subjects.
- Besides, the candidates usually spend more time in this section and the questions are time consuming.
- In the last year, there were eight difficult questions out of 45 questions in this section.
- Furthermore, Mechanics and Magnetism will be the two most important chapters and will carry the maximum weightage.
|Important Chapters||Weightage of Chapters in NEET 2021|
|Dual Nature of Matter & Radiation||7.3%|
|Magnetism & Moving Charges||6.3%|
|Rigid Body Dynamics||5.6%|
|Work, Energy, and Power||5.2%|
|Kinetic Theory & Thermal Properties of Matter||2.0%|
Weightage of NEET 2021 Chemistry Section
- Chemistry is moderately difficult part in NEET 2021 Exam
- NEET 2021 Chemistry questions range from theoretical to reasoning based practical.
- The candidates should practice more the application based questions for NEET 2021
- Besides, based on the trend of previous years’ question papers, it can be assumed that more questions will come from class XII than class XI.
- For instance, 24 questions were coming from class XII and 21 questions from class XII in last year.
- Lastly, Physical chemistry and organic chemistry will carry the maximum weightage in the NEET 2021 exam.
Also check NEET 2021 Revision Plan
|Important Chapters||Weightage of Chapters in NEET 2021|
|Organic Chemistry – II||5.6%|
|The d and f Block Elements||4.4%|
|IUPAC & Isomerism||4.0%|
|Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry||3.8%|
|Haloalkanes and Haloarenes||2.2%|
|Chemistry in Everyday Life||1.3%|
|Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids||1.0%|
Weightage of NEET 2021 Biology Section
- For instance, in the year 2017, there were 46 questions from class XII and 44 questions from class XI syllabus.
- This section is the easiest section compared to the rest. Hence, the candidates get scope to score high with the help of this section.
- As per prediction, most of the questions will come from Human Physiology and Plant Diversity in this year.
Check for more information, NEET Paper Analysis for identifying the chapters of each section that hold importance in the NEET 2021 syllabus weightage.
|Important Chapters||Weightage of Chapters in NEET 2021|
|Human Physiology Biological Classification Molecular Basis of Inheritance||12.0%|
|Molecular Basis of Inheritance||8.2%|
|Human Health and Diseases||4.3%|
|Biotechnology: Principles and Processes||3.1%|
|Microbes in Human Welfare||2.7%|
|Strategies for Enhancement of Food Production||1.4%|
Besides NCERT, the candidates should follow some subject specific NEET 2021 best books. Those books will be beneficial for them to clear their concept more. The chances of getting a high score will also be increased.
Best Books for Physics Preparation
|Book Name||Author Name|
|Concepts of Physics||H.C. Verma|
|Fundamentals of Physics||Halliday, Resnick and Walker|
|Objective Physics||D C Pandey|
|Complete NEET Guide||MTG Editorial Board|
Best Books for Chemistry Preparation
|Book Name||Author Name|
|Physical Chemistry, Organic Chemistry and Inorganic Chemistry||O.P. Tandon|
|Bull’s Eye Chemistry NEET Edition 2021||Seema Saini and K.S. Saini|
|Organic Chemistry||Morrison and Boyd|
|MTG’s Objective NCERT at your fingertips||MTG Editorial Board|
Best Books for Biology Preparation
|Book Name||Author Name|
|Objective Biology (Volumes 1 & 2)||GR Bathla|
|Elementary Biology (Volume 1 & 2)||Trueman|
|A Class Book for Botany||A C Dutta|
|Complete NEET Guide: Biology||MTG Editorial Board|
The type of questions asked in National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) are objective based type questions. The mode of the exam is offline. To prepare for the NEET 2021 exam, students should give first priority to those NCERT Class XI and XII books as they are most reliable. NCERT is written in simple language and is focused on concept-based teaching.
NEET 2021 Exam Pattern
Before appearing in the exam NEET 2021, the candidates should know the exam pattern including the marking scheme, total time duration and the other essential components. Hence, first read the following table to get to know about such important information:
|RESULT OF QUESTION||IMPACT|
|Popularly known as||NEET 2021|
|Conducted by||NTA, MCI|
|Number of questions||180|
|Type of questions||Multiple choice questions (MCQs)|
|Mode of examination||Offline (Pen and paper based)|
|Sections||Three (Physics, Chemistry and Biology)|
|Total score||720 marks|
|Duration of exam||3 hours|
Marking Scheme of NEET 2021 Exam
- Each question of every paper carries 4 marks.
- Consequently, the candidates can acquire 4 marks for every correct answer.
- Besides, you will get 1 negative marking for every wrong answer.
- Nonetheless, If you do not attempt any question, you will not be negatively marked.
Frequently Asked Questions
Ans: The total number of question in NEET 2020 would be 180. 45 questions will be equally asked in all the sections, that is Physics, Chemistry, Botany and Zoology.
Ans: All the questions in NEET 2020 would be objective type, that is Multiple Choice Questions.
Ans: The Physics syllabus comprises of Class 11th and 12th syllabus:
- Class 11th: Physical world and measurement, Notion of Potential Entergy, Nature of Physical Laws, Kinematics, Speed, Velocity, Work, Energy and Power, Laws of Motion, Static & Kinetic Friction, Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body, Gravitation, Kepler’s law of Planetary Motion, The Universal Law of Gravitation, Thermodynamics, Behavior of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory, Properties of Bulk Matter, Bulk Modulus, Critical Velocity, Heat, Work & Internal Energy, Oscillations and Waves.
- Class 12th: Electrostatics, Electric Charges & their Conservation, Electric Dipole, Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism, Carbon Resistors, Kirchhoff’s Laws & Simple Applications, Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents, AC Generator & Transformer, Concept of Megnatic Field, Permanent Magnets, Current Electricity, Electromagnetic Waves, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation, Optics, Optical Instruments, Wave Optics, Atoms and Nuclei, Electronic Devices, Conductors
Ans: The Chemistry syllabus comprises of Class 11th and 12th syllabus as well. Below mentioned are all the topics:
- Class 11th : Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry, Laws of Chemical Combination, Structure of Atom, Atomic Number, Isotopes & Isobars, Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure, Ionic Bond, Covalent Bond, States of Matter: Gases and Liquids, Thermodynamics, Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties, Electronegativity, Equilibrium, Equilibrium in Physical & Chemical Process, Redox Reactions, Hydrogen, Physical & Chemical Properties of Water, s-Block Element (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals), Organic Chemistry-Some Basic Principles and Techniques, Some p-Block Elements, Hydrocarbons, Environmental Chemistry.
- Class 12th : Solid State, Band Theory of Metals, Solutions, Elevation of Boiling Point, Electro Chemistry, Chemical Kinetics, Surface Chemistry, General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements, Electrochemistry, p-Block Elements, d and f Block Elements, Haloalkanes and Haloarenes, Alcohols, Physical & Chemical Properties of Primary Alcohol, Phenols and Ethers, Coordination Compounds, Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids, Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen, Amines, Cyanides & Isocyanides, Polymers, Biomolecules, Chemistry in Everyday Life, Cleansing Agents – Soaps & Detergents.
Ans: Biology syllabus comprises of questions from both Botany and Zoology. All the topics from which questions might be prompted in NEET 2020 are given below:
- Class 11th: Diversity in Living World, Three Domains of Life, Cell Structure and Function, Cell Theory, Plant Cell & Animal Cell, Structural Organization in Animals and Plants, Tissues, Morphology & Modifications, Plant Physiology, Transport in Plants, Photosynthesis, Human physiology.
- Class 12th: Reproduction, Reproduction in Organisms, Biology and Human Welfare, Genetics and Evolution, Heredity & Variations, Biology and Human Welfare, Biotechnology and Its Applications, Principle & Process of Biotechnology, Ecology and Environment, Organism & Environment, Biodiversity and its Conversation.