NEET Biology Syllabus-Preparation tips

NEET 2018 exam will be conducted on May 6, 2018. NEET Biology Syllabus is although not difficult but has a vast syllabus. NEET  is a single gateway for admission to MBBS/BDS program offered by any government, private or semi-government institute. Every year nearly 10 Lakh students appear for the entrance exam but only a few Students are able to got the seat  because of high completion and a limited number of seats.  

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Biology syllabus can be covered easily with the help of understanding of the topics, in the relative order of their importance.

If prepared well with a good time management plan you can score up to 90% in the biology section. Many of you are not big fans of plant kingdom unit, as there are plenty of scientific terms that are used in this unit, so the best is to prepare this at last as the percentage weigthage of this unit is only 0.7%, so you can be free of all hassles of technical preparations if you just follow the article closely.

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NEET 2018 biology syllabus

  • Diversity in Living World
  • Structural Organization in Animals and Plants
  • Cell Structure and Function
  • Plant Physiology
  • Human Physiology
  • Reproduction
  • Genetics and Evolution
  • Biology and Human Welfare
  • Biotechnology and Its Applications
  • Ecology and Environment
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation

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Detailed NEET  Biology syllabus:

Class XI

Unit I : Diversity in Living World

  • What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria
  • Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens;
  • Botanical gardens,   Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms
  • Viruses and Viroids.   Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category) Angiosperms- classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).  salient features and at least two examples).

NEET Biology Syllabus

UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

  • Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical
  • Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and Syllabus)  reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)

UNIT III: Cell Structure and Function

  • Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum,
  • Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus
  • Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids;  B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance

UNIT IV: Plant Physiology

  • Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport;
  • Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation;
  •  Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata
  •  Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention)
  • Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity;
  • Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological, nitrogen fixation
  • Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis
  • Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
  • Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth
  • Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism

UNIT V: Human Physiology

  • Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea
  • Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders
  • Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
  • Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory
  • System-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney
  • Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
  • Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
  • Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary,
  • Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).

Class XII

    UNIT I: Reproduction

  • Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants
  • Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollinationtypes, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation
  • Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
  • Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control- Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

 UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution

  • Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
  • Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation-Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
  • Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution

 UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare

  • Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
  • Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry
  • Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications

  • Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically
  • Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).  modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.

UNIT V: Ecology and environment

  • Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution
  • Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
  • Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
  • Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

NEET 2018 exam pattern:

Biology syllabus as defined by NEET is divided into two parts, Zoology and Botany. The syllabus of Biology on the whole is quite vast, students often waste their time on preparing for plant anatomy section, which has least weightage.

The important chapters are identified on the basis of the syllabus and the expected number of questions that can be framed on the basis of the details given in the syllabus.

A good score in this section can be easily obtained by allocating time to each of the topics in this section as per the importance level of the topic.

The table will help you in creating a time- table following the importance level of the topic.

Important topics for NEET 2018 Percentage weightage of important chapters
Human Physiology Biological Classification Molecular Basis of Inheritance 12.0%
Biomolecules 10.0%
Biological Classification 9.0%
Molecular Basis of Inheritance 8.2%
Animal Kingdom 7.0%
Reproduction 6.6%
Ecosystems 5.1%
Human Health and Diseases 4.3%
Biotechnology: Principles and Processes 3.1%
Microbes in Human Welfare 2.7%
Genetics 2.1%
Plant Kingdom 1.8%
Strategies for Enhancement of Food Production 1.4%
Cell Biology 1%
Plant Anatomy 0.7%

Preparation tips for NEET Biology:

  • As there are plenty of scientific terms that are used in biology, so to keep it simple, try and relate to the definition instead of mugging the definition.
  • Discuss the terms and definitions learned with your friends, this will help you in remembering the definitions better.
  • Sketch a diagram daily related to the syllabus defined, as plenty of questions are related to diagrams, so you cannot skip the diagram at any cost.
  • A study from the best books and in case of biology 90% of the questions are asked from NCERT books.
  • Do regular practices of MCQs from different topics, which will help you, identify your strengths and weaknesses.
  •  Try to work with the 10-year papers and mock exams for doing good preparation.
  • Do a self-check of the answers marked by you, go for comparative study.
  • Keep a graph of your score in the various test series worked on by you, this will help you in keeping a track of your performance.
  • Keep a metric check of your score in various topics, that will help you in identifying the topics where you need more practice or learning.

Study Material

In order to get an edge in your final performance in the exam, you must work with some good books. There are books that must be referred to specific topics and books that can be used as MCQ reference manuals.

Just keep one thing in mind, study limited books as too many books can create confusion.

Following the table shows name of the books with their publisher:

Book name Publisher ISBN
Objective NCERT at your Fingertips for NEET-AIIMS – Biology MTG Learning Media (P) Limited 938656193X
Trueman’s Objective Biology for NEET Trueman Book Company 818722374X
NEET-AIPMT Biology 25 Years Chapterwise Solved Papers (1992-2017) By Career Point Kota Career Point Publication B01N9IQI7W
Master the NCERT Biology Arihant Publication 9311123862
NCERT Xtract – Objective Biology for Class 11 & 12, AIPMT, AIIMS, JIPMER, BHU, AMU, State PMTs 2nd Edition Disha Publication 9385576380
Objective Life Science (Plant Science) S. Chand Publishing 9352533674

The better you prepare for NEET, better is your score and better placement in the college of your choice. It is important that you follow closely the importance of each topic and prepare accordingly. The time allotted to this section is 90 minutes, giving 45 minutes to each Zoology and Botany section independently.

As per the marking scheme, 4 marks are awarded for every correct answer and 1 mark is deducted for every wrong answer.